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The Boundaries of Manipur

Chapter IV

The Southern Boundary (Contd.)  

In 1874 the tribe again committed attacks on the Mukoong and the Kumsol villages in the territory of Manipur.24 Dr. Brown, the Political Agent, who visited and inspected the villages recorded that he found both the villages partly burnt and abandoned, their survivors taking refuge in Chairel and Wangoo Villages respectively.25 When the above details reached the Capital, the Manipuris desired to punish the tribe for their wanton raids and sought the opinion of the Political Agent. Brown recommended in favour of the Manipuris. After the perusal of the records the Government of India also concurred in the opinion of the Agent and allowed the Raja to punish the Kamhaws with the following propositions to be observed (i) that the villages in and around Mombee only, had to be attacked, (ii) that the Manipuris had to send a sufficient force to obviate all chances of defeat and (iii) that reprisals on women and children had to be strictly avoided.

Thus, on 19 February 1875, a strong force, consisting of two thousand Manipuri soldiers and four hundred Khongjais, under the command of Thangal and Sawaijamba marched for Shugnu, the base camp for the operation.26 The force reached Mombee on the 26th and made an attack on the Kamhaws. After a gallant resistance that covered one and a half hours’ fighting, the latter gave away and abandoned the field.27 On 27 February, 1975, the troops made further preparations for an attack on the Kamhaw Villages. By that time a deputation from Noogeah, consisting of Kumteh and Thanjeeloom came to the camp of the Manipuri, and made clear their unwillingness to continue the fight. The two Manipuri commanders asked them to surrender the captives they carried away from Kumsol. The delegates agreed to surrender the prisoners an also promised to pay tribute to the Raja of Manipur. Athokpa and Nungsang Subadars, with twenty two soldiers were sent along with Kumteh and Thangjeeloom to rescue the prisoners.28 The party returned with the wife and children of the Chief of Kumsol, who had also been captured in the last raid. Dr. Brown observed : “To conclude, although I am disappointed at ano hostages having been brought in, I think the expedition has been fairly successful. Whether or not the prisoners will now be given up is uncertain and as to the continuance of peace, time only can show. The Manipuris, I may add effected the whole operation without losing any of their number.”29

After the above expedition and subsequent establishment of four new Thannas in that frontier, no raid had been committed by the Kamhaws on Manipur.; However, they, once again, became more aggressive during 1877, 1878 and 1883.30

A well defined boundary was, therefore, Smainly felt in his frontier as early as the eighteen nineties. With this object in view a Boundary Commission, consisting of Mr. B.S. Carey, the Political Officer Chin Hills and Mr. A. Porteous, Officiating Political Agent at Manipur met on 27 January 1894 at Tin Zin in the Kabaw Valey, 30 miles south of Tamu.31 In that year they decided to demarcate a boundary from Lunglen Hill westwards toTipaimukh. The proposed boundary ran the course of the Tin Zin river to its source in the Yomadung range thence for 4 miles south west wards the crest of that range and then the course of the Yangdung river to its mouth on the Manipur River.32 The Government of India accepted the purposed boundary33 and officially approved it in 1898. Since then the territorial integrity of Manipur in this frontier, has so long been observed by the authorities concerned.

Reference :
  1. P.C. July 1870, No. 275, Letter from the Government of India to the P.A. Manipur, No. 1127,p.3. June 1870

  2. P.C. 13 April 1855, No. 120, Verner toSecretary, Government of Bengal, 12 March 1855

  3. P.C. June 1855, No. 79, McCullock to Beadon, 7 May 1855

  4. Ibid

  5. Ibid

  6. Chakravarty, B.C., British Relations with he hill tribes of Assam since 1858, P. 47

  7. Woodthrope, R.G., The Lushai Expedition, p. 25

  8. Ibid. p. 31

  9. Ibid. pp. 46-47

  10. Mackenzie, Alexander, North East Frontier of Bengal, p. 160

  11. Woodthrope, op.cit., p. 39

  12. Ibid. p. 230

  13. Ibid. p. 256

  14. P. Progo, November 1872, No. 104

  15. Annual Administrative Report of the Manipur Political Agency, 1873, pp. 7-9

  16. Mackenzie, op. cit. p. 162

  17. Administrative Report of the Manipur Political Agency, 1873-74 p. 9

  18. Ibid. 1874-75, p.7

  19. Mackenzie, Alexander, op.cit. p. 163

  20. Administrative Report of the Manipur Political Agency, 1874-75 p. 7

  21. Mackenzie, Alexander op. cit. p. 164

  22. Administrative Report of the Manipur Political Agency, 1874-75, po. 5-6

  23. Mackenzie, Alexnder, op.cit. p. 167

  24. Administrative Report of the Manipur Political Agency, 1874-75, p. 8

  25. Ibid.

  26. Ibid. p. 11

  27. Ibid.

  28. Ibid.

  29. Ibid. p. 12

  30. F.A. Poitl, E. Progs. September 1883, No. 262, Lyall to Secy. Government of India, 22 June 1883

  31. Administrative Report of Manipur, 1893-94, p.1

  32. Ibid

  33. Latter No. 1827, E. dt. 22 Oct. 1984





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